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Private, Public, and Consortium: Exploring the  Blockchain Diversity

The blockchain trifecta: a detailed explanation of public, private, and consortium networks

Understanding the differences between private, public, and consortium blockchains is crucial. Each type offers unique features, governance models, and use cases:

Private blockchains are known for their privacy and permissioned nature, ideal for businesses seeking controlled access and data security.

Public blockchains operate on an open, permissionless basis, allowing anyone to participate and contribute to the network's security and consensus mechanisms.

Consortium blockchains blend elements of both, offering a decentralized yet selective approach to blockchain participation.

This guide aims to demystify these blockchain varieties, providing clear insights into their workings, advantages, and potential drawbacks. Whether you're new to the blockchain scene or looking to deepen your understanding, this exploration offers a straightforward examination tailored for beginners.

By utilizing simple language and focusing on key points, we aim to make blockchain technology accessible to all, revealing how these digital ledgers are shaping the future of secure and transparent transactions across various industries.

Understanding private blockchains

Private blockchains stand out for their privacy and control, catering to organizations that require secure, permissioned environments:

Privacy & permissions: 

Access to a private blockchain is restricted, typically requiring an invitation and approval. This ensures transactions remain private, visible only to authorized participants.


Unlike fully decentralized systems, private blockchains have a governance structure that dictates who can participate and in what capacity, leading to a more centralized approach.


  • Tailored for business use, offering control over transactions and network participation.
  • Use cases include digital identity verification, supply chain management, and secure data sharing in sectors like healthcare and finance.


The Linux Foundation's Hyperledger Fabric exemplifies a successful private blockchain application, demonstrating its utility in enterprise settings.


  • Critics argue that the centralization aspect contradicts the foundational principle of blockchain – decentralization.
  • Security concerns arise with centralized control, potentially making the network more susceptible to manipulation or attacks.

By focusing on controlled access and efficiency, private blockchains offer a solution for organizations looking to leverage blockchain technology's benefits without exposing sensitive data to the public blockchain.

The role of public blockchains

Public blockchains are the epitome of decentralization and openness, allowing anyone to participate without restrictions:

Openness & permissionless: 

Anyone with an internet connection can join, contribute to the consensus process, and engage in transactions.


To encourage participation, public blockchains often have mechanisms that reward users for their contributions to network security and consensus.


Bitcoin and Ethereum are prominent examples, showcasing the power and potential of public blockchain technology.


  • Enhances transparency and trust among users by allowing anyone to verify transactions and engage in the network.
  • Decentralization makes it exceedingly difficult for any single entity to control or manipulate the network.


  • The need for consensus across numerous nodes can lead to significant energy consumption, especially in networks relying on proof-of-work (PoW) mechanisms.
  • Public visibility means transactions are transparent, which can raise privacy concerns for certain users.

Public blockchains democratize access to blockchain technology, fostering innovation and new forms of digital interaction. Their open nature invites worldwide participation, contributing to the robustness and security of the network.

Private vs. public blockchains

The distinction between private and public blockchains lies in their access, control, and intended use cases, impacting their efficiency, security, and application:

Access and control:

  • Private blockchains: Access is restricted, requiring invitations. Control is centralized to some extent, with a governing entity or consortium setting the rules.
  • Public blockchains: Open to anyone, these blockchains are decentralized, with no single entity in control.

Efficiency and scalability:

  • Private blockchains: Can process transactions more quickly due to fewer participants. They are scalable within the network's controlled environment.
  • Public blockchains: Often face scalability challenges because of the need for consensus across a vast network of nodes.

Security and trust:

  • Private blockchains: While controlled access can enhance security for internal transactions, the centralization aspect might increase vulnerability to attacks or manipulation.
  • Public blockchains: The extensive network of participants enhances security and trust, making it difficult for any single party to compromise the network.

Use cases:

  • Private blockchains: Suited for businesses and organizations looking for blockchain benefits without exposing sensitive data publicly. Examples include supply chain management and confidential records.
  • Public blockchains: Ideal for applications that benefit from widespread participation and transparency, such as cryptocurrencies and decentralized finance (DeFi) platforms.

This comparison highlights the strategic considerations organizations must weigh when choosing the blockchain type that best suits their needs and objectives.

The concept of consortium blockchains

Consortium blockchains represent a middle ground between the openness of public blockchains and the restricted access of private ones, incorporating features of both:

Hybrid nature: 

Consortium blockchains allow for selective participation, where multiple organizations share control, combining decentralization with controlled access.


  • Validators are pre-selected from a group of organizations or entities, ensuring a level of trust and security within the network.
  • This setup supports a democratic approach to decision-making, with each validator having a say in the consensus process.


  • Security and efficiency: More secure and efficient than public blockchains due to the limited and vetted participation, yet less centralized than private blockchains.
  • Scalability: Capable of handling a higher volume of transactions per second compared to public blockchains, due to the controlled number of nodes.

Use cases: 

Particularly useful in industries where businesses need to interact and transact securely without fully trusting each other, like financial services, supply chain management, and healthcare.


Quorum and Corda are notable examples of consortium blockchains, demonstrating their applicability in various sectors.

Consortium blockchains offer a balanced solution for organizations seeking the benefits of blockchain technology without fully committing to either a public or private model, promoting collaboration while maintaining control and security.

How private blockchains function

Private blockchains are characterized by restricted access and centralized control, making them suitable for organizations prioritizing privacy and efficiency:

Controlled access: 

Entry is by invitation only, with network rules set by the founding entity or governing consortium.

Network operation:

  • The network operator defines roles and permissions, such as who can participate in consensus or access specific data.
  • Distributed among nodes within the organization or trusted entities, ensuring data integrity and confidentiality.

Consensus mechanism:

  • Unlike public blockchains that require extensive proof-of-work (PoW) for consensus, private blockchains may use more efficient consensus protocols, reducing energy consumption and speeding up transaction processing.

Use cases:

  • Ideal for enterprise applications where data privacy is paramount, such as in financial services, supply chain management, and healthcare data sharing.

Security and efficiency:

  • While more centralized, the controlled environment can offer heightened security against external threats and streamlined operations.

In essence, private blockchains provide a secure, efficient framework for organizations looking to leverage blockchain technology's benefits within a controlled, private setting. They facilitate streamlined operations while maintaining data privacy and integrity.

The mechanics of public blockchains

Public blockchains are the backbone of cryptocurrency systems like Bitcoin and Ethereum, characterized by their open and decentralized nature:

Open participation: 

Anyone can join and contribute to the network, performing transactions, and participating in the consensus process without needing an invitation.

Decentralization and security:

  • The decentralized structure ensures that no single entity controls the blockchain, enhancing security and resilience against attacks.
  • This widespread participation also contributes to a robust consensus mechanism, making it nearly impossible for malicious actors to compromise the network.

Consensus mechanisms:

  • Public blockchains commonly use proof-of-work (PoW) or proof-of-stake (PoS) mechanisms to achieve consensus among participants, ensuring transaction validity and integrity.
  • These processes require participants (miners or validators) to solve complex mathematical problems or stake cryptocurrency as a commitment to honesty, respectively.

Transparency and anonymity:

  • Transactions are transparent and verifiable by anyone in the network, promoting trust and accountability.
  • Despite the transparency, participants can maintain a level of anonymity, as transactions are tied to cryptographic addresses, not personal identities.


  • The extensive consensus process can lead to slower transaction times and higher energy consumption, particularly with PoW mechanisms.
  • The open nature may raise privacy concerns, as transaction details are publicly accessible.

Public blockchains democratize access to blockchain technology, allowing for a transparent, secure, and decentralized digital ledger system. This openness fosters innovation and community participation, driving the development of new applications and services.

Consortium blockchains in action

Consortium blockchains offer a unique blend of control and decentralization, designed for collaborative environments where multiple organizations need to securely and efficiently share information:

Shared governance: 

Unlike private blockchains controlled by a single organization or public blockchains with open participation, consortium blockchains are governed by a group of organizations. This collective governance model ensures balanced control and shared decision-making.

Selective participation:

  • Participants in a consortium blockchain are pre-selected, usually by the founding members or through a consensus among current participants.
  • This controlled access model enhances security and trust, as all parties have a vested interest in the network's integrity and success.

Consensus process:

  • Consortium blockchains typically employ efficient consensus mechanisms that do not require the extensive computational resources of proof-of-work systems.
  • Consensus can be achieved through voting systems or other methods that ensure quick and energy-efficient transaction validation.


  • Security and efficiency: With fewer, trusted participants, consortium blockchains are less susceptible to external attacks and can process transactions more rapidly than public blockchains.
  • Scalability: The network can handle a higher volume of transactions per second, thanks to the streamlined consensus process and controlled node participation.

Use cases: 

Ideal for sectors where businesses must interact and transact securely, such as banking, supply chain management, and healthcare, allowing for transparent and efficient cross-organization collaboration.


Notable consortium blockchain platforms include Quorum and Corda, which provide frameworks for developing and operating consortium blockchain applications.

Consortium blockchains represent a pragmatic approach for organizations seeking the benefits of blockchain technology—security, transparency, and efficiency—without the extremes of complete centralization or open decentralization. This model fosters collaboration and innovation across industries, offering a robust solution for multi-party transactions and data sharing.